Category Archives: Research

Reading Notes: “Users of the world unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media”

Kaplan, A. M., & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0007681309001232

– Social Media is on the rise

– Firms have less control over what information customers can access

– The event of Social Media is sort of an evolution back to the original point of the Internet: to share information between users (but it’s more than that, and it’s different from Web 2.0 and User Generated Content (UGC)).

– Focus on six types:

  1. Collaborative Projects
  2. Blogs
  3. Content Communities
  4. Social Networking Sites
  5. Virtual Game Worlds
  6. Virtual Social Worlds

So these categories are making me think about Social Media in a way I haven’t considered before.  I’m thinking about how useful it is to divide Social Media into categories. I’m thinking about the six categories above and wondering about the ones I don’t recognise (1, 3, 6) and also thinking about the differences between the ones I do (2, 4, 5).

– Defining Web 2.0 as a place where collaboration became more common/valued than publication. For Web 2.0 to exist it needed:

  1. Adobe Flash
  2. RSS
  3. Ajax (asynchronous Java Script)

– Kaplan and Haenlein consider “Web 2.0 as the platform for the evolution of Social Media” (2010, p. 61).

– Three things are required for content to be considered UGC:

  1. Posted publicly (or to a select group) – so not IM or email
  2. Have creative effort- so not reproductions of other work
  3. Be created outside professional practice – so not created for an audience from a business POV.

– “Social Media is a group of internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technical foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of User Generated Content” (2010, p. 61).

At this point in the reading, I finally noticed that the references in this article were also hyperlinks. I was slightly disappointed to find that they only linked to the bibliography at the bottom of the article, but I think it’s a good idea to use in my report at the end of semester.

– Idea of Media Richness Theory is that the goal of communication is to resolve ambiguity and reduce uncertainty. More info: Daft and Lengle

Table 1

I’m not sure I agree with the table 100% but possibly because I don’t understand the Social Presence/Media Richness category. Will read the Daft and Lengle article at a later date to see if this helps my understanding.

I started skimming the rest of the article at this point (probably something I should have done before I began reading it) and came across a point later in the article that made me want to check the publication date of this article (also something I should have noted at the start). It’s an important thing to keep in mind, especially when reading articles about technology.

– Collaborative Projects

  • “democratic manifestation of UGC” (2010, p. 62).
  • eg. Wikis, bookmarking services like Delicious, Urban Dictionary
  • the idea behind it is that joint effort produces better results than a solo effort
  • can harm firms: the customer feedback cycle
  • can benefit firms: keep track of/in touch with employees

– Blogs

  • “The Social Media equivalent of personal web pages” (2010, p. 63)
  • usually managed by one person, interaction=comments
  • can be good or bad for firms, obviously?!

– Content Communities

  • eg YouTube, Flickr, Slideshare
  • risk of sharing copyright material
  • but reward of reaching potential customers through customer interactions or sharing recruitment videos/ keynote speeches/ press releases etc.

– Social Networking Sites

  • eg FaceBook, MySpace
  • firms can use SNS to promote themselves and reach customers

– Virtual Game Worlds

  • “Virtual Worlds are probably the ultimate manifestation of Social Media  as they provide the highest level of social presence and media richness of all the applications discussed thus far” (2010, p. 64).
  • eg WOW, Runescape (personal eg), X-box and PlayStation online games
  • not too much interest for firms except in collaborative advertising maybe

– Virtual Social Worlds

  • eg. Second Life
  • lots of opportunities for firms to become part of the VSWs and market to the “residents”

I skimmed the rest of the article “Five points about using media” and “Five points about being social” because I know this information already, as I often read it on creative/entrepreneurial blogs about online presence and branding.

Overall an interesting article to start my semester on, and I’ll be looking further into the Media Richness Theory before too long.

Search Engine Comparison

They say change is good, but I am not convinced. Google has been my go to search engine for at least the last 9 years, but what about before that? Way back in primary school I was using search engines like Yahoo, Dogpile and Ask Jeeves (for kids). I was also using cool programs like logo, but that’s beside the point.

So today, I’ll be comparing these three search engines and seeing what they’re like now. I’ll start with a relatively easy search term, “The Little Prince”. It’s been on my mind lately, so I thought I’d see what the Internet has to offer in regards to one of the books of my childhood.

Yahoo and Dogpile both brought me comparable results to Google (because of course, I couldn’t resist “Googling” it as well) but Ask Jeeves brought me some really whacked out results. First, I was surprised at the sponsored links at the top, they certainly weren’t there a decade ago (oh god, a whole decade, now I feel old). Then there were two relevant and useful links, all good, followed by eight, yes eight, links to Disney sites or toy stores. Clearly a search engine aimed at kids, unfortunately, not as good as it seemed to be a decade ago.

But wait, perhaps I’m being unfair. A decade ago I was using Ask Jeeves to do research for my projects, searching for terms like “What do koalas eat?” and “Where is krakatoa?”. So let’s try all three search engines with the question “Why do volcanoes erupt?” and see what happens…

Ah! All three search engines return useful links. The Ask Jeeves results were aimed more at kids with simpler explanations and more kid friendly websites. So, much better this time round, however they still had the sponsored results at the top and bottom of the search results. Dogpile had a long list of sponsored results at the top it it’s page, but that’s because they’re a combination of Google promoted results and Yahoo promoted results (Dogpile uses a combination search, drawing on results from Google, Yahoo, Yandex and Bing). Yahoo on the other hand had no promoted results for this search querie, but did have an ad for itself at the bottom of the results claiming to be “promotional results” when really it was totally unrelated.

Okay, but let’s get rational here. I don’t really need to know why volcanoes erupt these days, I mean, I’m studying at university for goodness sake. I need to know things like how citizen journalism has affected Malaysia. So let’s try searching “How has citizen journalism affected Malaysian media?” and see what we get.

Right. Ask Jeeves has returned not one useful or relevant link. At all. But Yahoo and Dogpile? Both have plenty of relevant links, both are nicely laid out, easy to navigate, and come with categories up the top to sort results. Dogpile has two main advantages at the moment, the first being it’s suggested searches on the side and the second being the cute dog who I presume is the one doing the fetching every time I click “fetch”. Wait, I lied. It has three advantages. The third is it’s ability to pull results from Google and Yahoo as well as Bing and Yandex. This means it gets a good mix of results and beside each result it tells you where it was found (for example, exclusively on one search engine or on many).

So out of these three search engines, my favourite is Dogpile. Of course, I could set it as my homepage (except I don’t actually have or use a homepage) or I could set it as my default search engine with my web browser, but I’m still way too attached to Google to do that. Instead, I’m going to add it to my bookmarks bar and use it next time I’m tempted to click to the second page of results on Google. Because, I mean, who does that?

News From The Other Side Of The World

It’s been nice having my Google Alerts sitting in the bottom of my reader the last couple of days. I mean, mostly. It’s also kinda sucked cause it feels like just another thing I don’t have the time to read… but it’s also been good, as I can keep up with the news relating to Watoto, Uganda and Africa.

I must say I was a little disappointed with the African news results, only because there was so much Olympic news in there, and in general the comments on such news articles were in serious need of some moderating!

There were only three results for my Watoto alert, two relating to their world famous choirs and one about a scandalous land grab that upon reading the actual article turned out to have no actual scandal related to the church.

By far the most interesting alert was the one I set up for news in Uganda, and truthfully, this is the only one I won’t be deleting after I finish this post. I have a personal affinity for Uganda having travelled there twice in the last three years and made connections with the country and her people while there.

I read about the 40 year anniversary of Idi Amin expelling Asians from the country. I read about the Gay Pride weekend that was being held in the botanic gardens of Entebbe (a place I have visited and so can vividly imagine what the gatherings would have looked like). And I read that the HIV rate in Uganda is, sadly, on the rise again.

I am currently in the middle of a lack-of-travel slump and reading these tid-bits from Uganda really perked me up. I’m going to keep my alert for news from Uganda for a few more weeks, but keep the pressure off to check it all the time. It’s kind of a handy way to keep in touch with the news without having to hunt it down myself.